Learn How To Protect Yourself and Others from Infectious Diseases, Including Covid-19 and its Variants

Posted on 3 May 21:08 by Diana N Ahuche

What Are Infectious Diseases?

Infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and small organisms and parasites such as protozoa and can be known as germs. 


Infectious diseases can be dangerous. Infectious diseases can spread between individuals within a household, social gathering and up to the scale of a global pandemic. Infectious diseases can pose a huge risk to a population because of their possible high mortality rates, particularly high risk ones like influenza, COVID-19 and its variants. There are high risk viral infectious diseases being discovered rampantly even long after the original variant has cleared.


Large-scale outbreaks of infectious diseases pose an increasing threat to global health as international travel and population density rise. Without appropriate prevention strategies, effective treatment measures, global trade and world travel, pandemics can spread at an exponential rate. This gives rise to morbidity and mortality within populations and large-scale economic disruption. 


Infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and small organisms and parasites. Many organisms live upon and within our bodies. Not all of them are harmful, some are even helpful and are known as host flora. Gut flora for example, can help with the digestion process and can prevent disease by competing with other non-host bacteria. 

 

Bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections can be contagious. They can be passed from person to person directly through physical contact, or indirectly by coughs and sneezes known as aerosol transmission. Tiny droplets are produced and expelled by the body when coughing and sneezing and these droplets contain minute levels of the infectious disease. When other people inhale these droplets, they can then cause disease in that person. Malaria is a parasitic disease and is transmitted by mosquitos. Rabies is a bacterial infection passed on when an infected dog bites. You may also get others like E-coli, a bacterial disease caught by consuming contaminated food and typhoid, a bacterial disease linked to contaminated water. A Candida infection is a fungus spread by touching contaminated surfaces.

 

What Causes Infectious Diseases?

 

Infectious diseases are caused by: 

  1. Bacteria - These single-cell organisms cause illnesses such as urinary tract infections (UTI), tuberculosis, traveller’s diarrhoea and others. While friendly bacteria are important in healthy digestion and supplying essential nutrients throughout the body, it can also help to keep bad bacteria in check. On the other hand, bad bacteria can be lethal, particularly if they reach the blood or are left untreated. Bad bacteria in the gut leads to potentially harmful health effects, especially when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal or unhealthy changes such as sickness or treatment. Certain gut bacteria in patients or animal models may cause allergy, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, diabetes, and even cancer (Mueller, et al 2006). IBD is a common gut issue that effect many individuals, and earlier studies determined that inflammatory bowel disease presents other gut condition such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It was also found that most patients with IBD also reported H. pylori infection and it has been associated with an array of gastric diseases. Probiotics is often used to rebalance gut conditions.
  2. Viruses– These are smaller than bacteria and can also be lethal. Viruses cause a wide range of diseases ranging from the common cold to the worlds most recent pandemic, COVID-19.
  3. Fung -These are single-celled organisms that cause illnesses such as ringworm and athlete's foot. Both are skin diseases, caused by fungi known as Tinea. Fungal infections may also be lethal if they reach the blood or are left untreated.
  4. Parasites – These are larger, multi-celled organisms that cause illness such as malaria. Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite called Plasmodium and is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. 

 

Having an infection may lead to the development of secondary infections. Commonly, these are bacterial, viral or fungal. 


Contracting Infectious Diseases by Direct Contact

Most infectious diseases are spread when we come into contact with a person or an animal that is infected. Infectious diseases often spread through direct contact such as: 

  1. Person to person - Infectious diseases commonly spread through the direct contact and transfer of bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections from one person to another. This can happen when an individual with the germ touches, coughs or sneezes on an uninfected person. These germs can also spread through intimate contact and by the direct exchange of body fluids from sexual contact. The person who passes the infectious disease is also known as “the carrier” and may not present with any symptoms of the disease and be unaware they are passing the disease onward.
  2. Animal to person - Having direct contact with an animal such as touching, hugging, kissing, or being bitten or scratched by an infected animal, even a pet, may cause disease. This could happen without you knowing it and in extreme circumstances, may cause death. Handling animal waste such as faeces without applying proper hygiene can be hazardous and may lead to contacting disease.  

 

Contracting Infectious Diseases by Indirect Contact


Disease-causing organisms are also passed by indirect contact. Many germs can linger on an inanimate object, such as a table top, doorknob, faucet handle, car door, cell phone, elevator button. 

 

For example, when you touch a doorknob used by someone who is unwell due to an infection such as cold or flu, you may pick up the germs they left behind. This is true if they have not first washed their hands before touching the doorknob. If you then touch your eyes, mouth, or nose area without washing or sanitizing your hands after touching the doorknob, you may also become infected. 

 

Insect Bites 


Some infectious diseases rely on vector carriers such as mosquitoes, fleas, lice, or ticks to survive. The vectors move from host to host, carrying the infectious disease within them. Mosquitoes can carry and transmit the malaria parasite or West Nile virus and both diseases can be deadly if not treated. 


Ticks may carry the bacterium Borellia that causes Lyme disease. Ticks need blood to survive, so they attach themselves to animals and humans to feed. Ticks then become infected with Lyme disease bacteria by feeding on infected wild animals. Once fed, they seek their next meal and can attach themselves and feed upon domestic animals such as birds, rodents, and dogs. The infected ticks can then move from the domestic animal on to uninfected humans and pets. 

 

Food Contamination 


Disease-causing germs can also infect you through contaminated food and water. This means of transmission allows germs to be spread to many people through a single source. Escherichia coli or E. coli, is a bacterium commonly present in or upon certain foods such as undercooked meat.  

 

To avoid E. coli contamination, cook your foods at the proper temperature. Use a food thermometer to check for temperature or determine the taste and look of the food to ensure it’s properly cooked. For ground meats, cook for at least 71°C (160°F); for poultry, 74°C (165°F); and for most other meats, at least 63°C (145°F). Promptly refrigerate leftover foods and don't let cooked foods remain at room temperature for a long time. (Canada.gov)


Coronavirus Infectious Disease 


What is a coronavirus? The coronavirus is a small airborne virus that infects humans and animals. Corona viruses are different from other viruses because they replicate inside cells in the respiratory tract rather than within cells in the gastrointestinal tract or brainstem like with the common cold virus. The current global COVID-19 pandemic is a coronavirus strain. COVID-19 stands for COrona VIrus Disease 2019 after the year it was first identified (with the letters in bold, spelling out COVID-19). 


All human populations can become infected with a coronavirus, though there are groups of people that are more susceptible to infection and deadly infection. Examples include, people who work in close quarters, those who have a weakened immune system, or are elderly (over 65yrs). The contracted viral strain can be determined by a blood or stool sample or more appropriately, by a nose, mouth or anal swab. Once infected, patients will experience fever and cough and will require supportive care for respiratory symptoms. All patients suspected and diagnosed with coronavirus should be isolated and treated, to limit transmission. While there are common infectious diseases, as mentioned previously, large-scale infectious diseases like COVID-19 and Spanish flu are far more dangerous and impactful. However, small and large-scale infectious diseases pose serious threat to our individual or collective health. Here's an insight into how destructive infectious diseases can be, on health and economy. There are grave risks to contracting infectious diseases for both individuals and the global community. 

 

Impact: The Dangers/Risks of Infectious Diseases (on Individual and the Global Community) 

 

For an individual, the agony, the financial burden, and the physical, mental and emotional toll from an infectious disease such as COVID-19, can make it difficult or impossible to fully recover. People may require continuing supportive care due to lung scarring, and may be more prone to diseases such as the debilitating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For a nation or the global community, the road to recovery and memories it leaves behind can be unpleasant. We all can contribute, in one way or another, to help manage viral infectious disease predicaments in our world, now and in the future.

There is still hope to eradicate COVID-19; even though the future is uncertain. COVID-19 wasn't the first infectious disease and scientists are arguing that it won't be the last one. With climate change and other environmental issues flaring up with no solution in sight, diseases are becoming more prevalent. 

 

The History of Infectious Disease


Historically, infectious diseases have had civilisation-altering consequences, from individual consequences to a grand global health crisis. During the Spanish flu pandemic from 1918–1920, an estimated 50–100 million humans worldwide were recorded to have died from the infection. France, China, and Britain have all been looked at as the potential birthplace of the virus, as has the United States, where the first known case was reported at a military base in Kansas State on March 11, 1918. 


Ebola is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with a virus that can cause illness in humans and other primates (monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas). Ebola virus (EBOV) has caused numerous outbreaks and fatalities in Africa, particularly West Africa. The biggest outbreak on record is from the 2013 to 2016 epidemic held a total number of 28,616 cases of Ebola virus disease and 11,310 deaths, since its discovery along the Ebola River, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This virus's strains are still being reported to hit some African countries now and then and still causing terrible sickness and death. 


Coronavirus is the current, probably about one of the worst viral infectious disease situations we have had to deal with on a global scale. Still on going, the coronavirus has infected 147,443,848 people worldwide and caused 3,117,542 casualties or deaths (as of April 2021), believed to have broken out in The Wuhan Institute of Virology laboratory in China in late 2019. The virus spread quickly across the world in no time and caused unprecedented international health and economic crisis.   

 

Solution: How To Protect Against Infectious Diseases and Coronavirus Strains

 

Black seed oil (BSO), may be used to protect yourself and others from infectious diseases including COVID-19 and its emerging variants. 


BSO is an ancient remedy, a "natural wonder" oil that earned its place at grave walls of ancient Egyptian Pharaohs. It caught the attention of modern medicine practitioners, medical scientists, medical researchers whom have all shown their support for its unmatched healing, health, and wellness benefits. They have also investigated and found that black seed oil have efficacy on common and stubborn viral infectious diseases and in maintaining overall sound health. 


BSO helps the body ward off infections by fighting against bacteria and viruses, as well as speeding up the body’s healing process. BSO has been used for centuries in Ayurveda, homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine to heal a variety of ailments. The commonly known means by which black seed aids in protecting against and treating infectious diseases is increasing and activating antibodies in the body to optimally support your immune defence system, but black seed also has efficacy on viral shedding.


BS (oil) Positively Affects the Immune System, which helps in Fighting Infectious Diseases


In February 1995, the journal Medicinal Plants published a study of the effect of fixed oil in Nigella Sativa (black seed oil extract) and its most active substance of thymoquinone on white blood cells. The results of this study showed that thymoquinone is much more active than the widely prescribed drug, ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin), in destroying M. Bovis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, and M. Citrea, a strain of tuberculosis found in cattle.


Many documents are supporting the results q, black seed's highly potent compound, helps to increase white blood cells. This increase of white blood cells not only helps fight against infections such as tuberculosis, but also aids in the defence against cancer cells. 


Having sufficient white blood cells are a key component of having a well functioning immune system. A well functioning immune system is crucial to fight against infectious diseases. The primary task of the immune system is to fight disease-causing germs (pathogens) like bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi, and to remove them from the body. The immune system detects pathogens and responds quickly to eliminate them, thereby prevent them from causing illness.

 

Black seed (oil) boosts the production of white blood cells, (immune) increasing the availability of antibodies. Antibodies help the immune system to fight infectious organisms and toxins (poisons). Therefore, the black seed increases the production of antibodies, which in turn boosts the immune system and helps it to fight against infectious diseases (e.g. tuberculosis) and pathogens (i.e. viruses). The immune system functions heavily relies on the health of the gut. Probiotics is an excellent source of good bacteria that help to rebalance and maintain a harmonious gut ecosystem, but black seed oil helps to treat and restore existing gut conditions, which in turn support a well functioning immune system. 


According to a review, it was found evident that the black seed and its active agent thymoquinone possessed a useful effect on several human diseases including inflammatory and metabolic syndrome and warranted clinical trials. It was noted that its side effects were mild. (Tavakkoli, et al 2017).


There is a Relationship between Immune System and Metabolic Syndrome.


Metabolic syndrome is an immune system related group of health problems with five risk factors including high triglyceride levels (cholesterol), increased blood pressure, excess fat around the waist and high blood sugar levels. These risk factors increase the likelihood of developing heart disease, diabetes, and stroke, which are highly consequencial health conditions. Maintaining properly functioning immune system may aid in reducing, correcting or eliminating several health issues. Evidence suggest that chronic activation of the innate immune system may underlie metabolic syndrome. (Duncan, et al 2011)


Ensuring strong immune system is essential to managing the upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) triggered in response to the viral infection of the upper airway. These URTIs present severe respiratory damage and inflammation, which may lead to death.  The immune response to infection may be the main factor in generating the symptoms, rather than damage to the airway. Building strong immune system can offset these symptoms. The damage caused in the airway has to be addressed just as the symptoms developed by immune system's inability to combat the infection attack from onset.



Here are scientific evidence of how BSO helps to combat bacterial infections, virus infections and the coronavirus infectious disease, COVID-19.


Examples of Black Seed Oil Against Bacteria Infections


There's a growing global threat of antibiotic-resistance. Pathogens such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and there's an urgent need to find and develop a new class of antibiotics. Black seed oil works as an effective agent against stubborn bacterial infection given below. Disease-causing bacteria are responsible for a long list of dangerous infections. It has been found that BSO, also known as Kalonji, may have antibacterial properties and be effective at treating certain bacterial strains.


In one study, Kalonji was applied topically to infants with a staphylococcal skin infection and discovered that it was as effective as a standard antibiotic, mupirocin. No side effects were observed during clinical practice. (Rafati, et al 2014).


Another study isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a highly resistant bacterial infection that is difficult to treat and resistant to many antibiotics, from the wounds of diabetic patients. Black seed reportedly killed off the bacteria in a dose-dependent manner in over half of the samples tested. Human studies are limited, and more research is needed to look at how BSO may affect other different strains of bacteria activities in the body.


Black Seed Oil Efficacy on Common Infectious Diseases


Herbal medicine was the basis for nearly all medicinal therapy until synthetic drugs were developed in the nineteenth century. The main reason for using medicinal herbs such as black seed oil as an adequate alternative to synthetic drugs is that they tend to have fewer side effects than some synthetic equivalent. 


With a history of use in traditional medicine BSO, ginger and fennel were tested for their antioxidant potency and antiviral activity against influenza virus. BSO was reported to inhibit the growth of the influenza virus strain H5N1. The influenza virus a reoccurring infectious disease originally found poultry and other animals, but also found in humans because humans make contact with a diseased bird.


The risk factors for human infection with avian (bird) influenza virus, which effects poultry animals, birds and swine influenza virus, which affects pigs, are:


  • Direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live unsanitary poultry markets. Exposure during slaughtering, de-feathering, handling carcasses of infected poultry, and preparing poultry for consumption in the household settings are likely risk factors of exposure. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling the circulation of avian influenza viruses in poultry is essential to reducing the risk of infection in human. Reducing the circulation, prevention, and protection against any infectious disease is essential to keep us safe from its devastating impact.

  • For swine (pig) influenza viruses, risk factors of exposure reported for most human cases includes close proximity to infected pigs or visiting locations where pigs are exhibited, live animal markets.

Avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza infections transmitted to humans may cause disease ranging from mild upper respiratory infection (fever and cough) to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death. Influenza virus is highly deadly and are in different parts of the world. Many people die from influenza virus every year, especially from common cold influenza that's not detected or left untreated early.


Like the COVID-19, influenza (Flu), is a highly contagious and fatal respiratory illness, but they are caused by different viruses. COVID-19 disease is caused by infection from coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2), and flu is caused by an influenza virus.


Influenza (flu) is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system — your nose, throat and lungs . Influenza is commonly called the flu that causes cold, it's not the same as stomach "flu" viruses that cause diarrhea.


Flu and the common cold are both respiratory illnesses but they are caused by different viruses. Because these two types of illnesses have similar symptoms, it has been medically difficult to tell the difference between them based on symptoms alone. Generally, flu is worse than the common cold, and symptoms are more intense.


The influenza syndrome typically comes on with sudden onset of fever, headache, cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, weakness, and loss of appetite unlike common cold that comes on slowly showing similar symptoms.


Influenza virus infection has historically caused a pandemic, new versions still emerge and there is no way to have influenza infections pandemic preparedness measures in place. Much like the on-going coronavirus global pandemic, influenza pandemics are unpredictable and can have health, economic and social consequences worldwide. An influenza pandemic occurs when a novel (never seen before version of virus) influenza virus emerges with the ability to cause human-to-human transmission, the human population has little to no immunity against the novel virus. With increasing global travel, a pandemic can spread rapidly around the world with little time to prepare a public health response.


The WHO, in its capacity for managing global health matters, continuously monitors avian and other zoonotic influenza viruses closely through its Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Everyone is responsible for minimizing the consequential effects of infectious diseases whether in household or on a global capacity by maintaining proper hygiene and supporting the immune system optimally, at all times. Use antiviral herbs on regular basis.


A study showed that supplement of black seed would significantly support and enhance immune responsiveness and suppress pathogenicity of influenza viruses in turkeys. BSO inhibited the development and growth of the virus in a dose-dependent manner with different antiviral activity.  Significantly higher antibody titre against avian flu (H9N2 AIV) in turkeys fed a higher dose of black seeds shows the immunomodulatory nature of black seed. (Umar et al, 2016).


In a human clinical study, patients with hepatitis C virus infection showed significant improvement in hepatitis C virus viral load after only 3 months of administering BSO treatment.  BSO administration in patients with hepatitis C virus was tolerable, safe, decreased viral load, and improved oxidative stress, and clinical condition. Adverse drug reactions were insignificant except for a few cases of epigastric pain and hypoglycaemia that did not affect patient compliance. (Barakat E. et al, 2013)


BSO and honey were found to inhibit HIV-1 replication. BSO was found to have had virucidal activity against herpes simplex and hepatitis A virus infections according to this study on Antiviral activity and mode of action of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Lupinus termes L. seed extracts against in vitro herpes simplex and hepatitis A virus infection. (Barakat E. et al, 2010). Black seed had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in natural medicine but an unexpected finding, was the sero-reversion in a Human immunljdhdjluency virus (HIV) infection, another deadly infectious disease. HIV is a deadly virus infection that severely attacks the body's immune system. HIV, if left untreated, can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). 

 

Seroreversion refers to the detectability of previously documented HIV antibody. This may occur due to change in the immune system, such as the administration of BSO. This case report reflects the fact that there are possible active therapeutic agents in the black seed that may effectively control HIV infection (Onifade, A et al 2013), or mask the detectability of the virus. Further research is needed to understand the interaction. 


Black Seed Oil Efficacy on Coronavirus Disease, Covid-19 (Scientific Based Evidence)


The global health challenges and high mortality rate brought about by COVID-19 have driven health professionals in many countries to seek to discover treatments and ways to curtail the rapid spread. They looked at several options including repurposing drugs and using historically documented anti viral plant medicine. The WHO, which is responsible for ensuring global health safety set up preventive guidelines for people to follow, they include frequent hand washing, use sanitizers, use of mask, social distancing, getting tested and isolating if infected with COVID-19.


Currently, COVID-19 patients are being treated mainly for symptoms of the disease since there's no effective and approved treatment available to fight covid-19. Chloroquine, hydroxy chloroquine, and an FDA approved antimalarial drug Invermectin have been considered to be potential anti-COVID-19 candidate drugs. 


As the disease progresses, new COVID-19 variants will arise. These variants are highly transmissible between humans and appear to be more deadly. The variants are appearing in different regions of the world. Unfortunately, some of the WHO guidelines are not being met, (WHO, 2021) furthering a potential increase of COVID-19 variants.  


Research is being explored for the prevention of diseases. 


Medicinal plants alone or in combination with antiviral therapy are being considered, to fight against COVID-19. Given that the bioactive natural products have played key role in discovery many important drug molecules and herbal medicine has been used to in the past for subjects in research for Seasonal Affective Respiratory Disease (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and influenza. Some plant targets were also identified, namely kaempferol, quercetin, coumaryl, tyramine, betulinic acid, cryptotans. 

A number of antiviral drugs such as ribavirin, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir as well as the antibiotics azithromycin and doxycycline have been recommended or are being used to treat COVID-19 patients for primary and secondary infections. (Rahman, 2020). 

 

Here's Proven Efficacy of BS (oil) on SARS-CoV-2


BSO has been used medicinally for thousands of years. Historians believe that King Tut, Cleopatra, and Hippocrates (father or founder of medicine) ingested black seed for an array of conditions, including malaise, fatigue, coughing and skin care. 


Medical and Scientific Research has been Performed on the antiviral efficacy of BSO on coronavirus, specifically SARS-CoV-2, and the results are looking positive. 


Black seed, scientifically known as Nigella sativa, has been described as a miracle plant remedy with a wide range of pharmacological properties, and was studied as a possible remedy against coronavirus disease, COVID-19. In the study, the researchers used active compounds from Nigella sativa, such asthymoquinone, nigellidine, a-hederin and some known drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to determine their binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2 related target sites. 


It is thought that the binding of some extremely potent natural plant compounds such as chloroquinone and thymoquinone might work in preventing the adhesion or stickiness of coronavirus to host cells. Thereby blocking the deadly virus infection from activating from onset.


Sommer, pointed out that anti viral mechanism of thymoquinone is similar to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine but antiviral potency and spectrum of thymoquinone is superior to hydroxychloroquine. The study researchers added that TQ is a smaller size hydrophobic molecule capable of binding to the lipophilic envelope of SARA-CoV-2 and killing the deadly virus by oxidizing. (Sommer, et al, 2020)


It was hypothesized that thymoquinone and nigellimine (another bioactive compound of Nigella sativa) may block the entry of SARS-CoV-2 via Angiotensin-converting enzymes 2 (ACE2) in lung cells. Rahman emphasized that augmenting BSO oil with zinc supplement could further its antiviral action because the uptake of zinc into lung cells will be enhanced in presence of thymoquinone. (Rahman, 2020)


In line with the proposed use of chloroquine, Nigella sativa could be considered as a potent natural substitute that contains many bioactive components such as thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and nigellimine.

 

To further enhance the benefits of Nigella sativa in treating COVID-19, a zinc supplement is necessary because zinc has been proven to improve innate and adaptive immunity in the course of any infection, be it by pathogenic virus or bacteria. (Rahman, 2020)


In addition, thymoquinone as an adjuvent therapy with hydroxychloroquine reduces it's toxicity and helps to potentiate the antiviral action of HCQ against COVID-19. (Al-Noaemi et al, 2020)


Compared to other antiviral drugs, the five natural compounds of black seed analysed such as nigellidine, a-hederin, hederagenin, thymohydroquinone, and thymoquinone were all potentially active compounds that might inhibit or protect against coronavirus.


It was concluded in a literature review, the inhibitory effects of some black seed compounds against SARS-CoV-2 in several molecular binding examples. For example, nigellidine, an alkaloid in black seed (whole seed), bound to 6LU7 active sites and showed an energy complex score close to chloroquine, and better than hydrochloroquine and favipiravir (an antiviral medication used to treat influenza in Japan and has shown potency against SARS). While, a-hederin a saponin in black seed binds to 2GTB active sites and showed an energy complex score better than chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and favipiravir with a high therapeutic margin. Based on this review, the researchers proposed Black Seed Oil as a potential pharmacological therapy candidate in the clinical treatment of coronavirus disease such as Covid-19. (Koshak DAE, 2020)


According to the researchers, another valid finding for using BSO or its powder in the measure of protecting against infectious diseases and the SARS-2 coronavirus strains, besides its efficacy, is that only minor or no adverse side effects were reported. 


In addition, this powerful nature's healing and wellness gift is believed to overcome dispiritedness. In other words, it promotes high spiritedness. Biomedicine, “The Canon of Medicine,” a medieval text written by Persian philosopher Avicenna noted, that the black seed stimulates the body’s energy and aids in recovery from fatigue and dispiritedness (low-spiritedness). Traditional uses of BSO in folk remedies (Aftab et al, 2013).


Dosage  

Many factors determine exactly how much black seed one can take such as existing health conditions. However, in human clinical trials, dosages of 1-3 grams of black cumin seed powder was used (orally) for up to 12 months successfully. Allow up to 2 months before checking on changes to cholesterol or blood glucose management. Additionally, black seed oil was used orally at doses up to 5 mL or 40 mg per kg for up to 8 weeks for therapeutic effects with no issues reported. (Fitzgerald, 2021). If you choose a proprietary product with individual packaging and dose, follow the recommended dosage instructions. 


Directions For Use

Black seed oil has a strong slightly bitter and spicy flavour, often compared to a cumin or oregano taste. As a result, if consuming BSO in a liquid form, you may want to mix it with another flavourful ingredient, such as honey, lemon or orange juice. 


BSO may be consumed in its raw form without cooking, one teaspoon at a time, says Stephanie Ferrari, a Massachusetts-based registered dietician.


Avoid heating or cooking it to preserve the nutrients.


The spiritual way to take BSO is by placing the dose amount in the palm of your hand, mix with honey and licking off with your tongue. However, the most common route is to place it under your tongue because the cheek and area under the tongue have many capillaries (tiny blood vessels). Therefore medicines placed there can be quickly and directly absorbed into the bloodstream, and supplied to the entire body. Black seed oil can be ingested in capsule or liquid form as a supplement. 


The oil can also be used topically by massaging it on skin and hair. People can also use the miracle oil by adding it to their shampoo and skin-care products. 


*Make Black Seed Oil a staple in your medicine cabinet to nourish your health, and protect you against viral infectious diseases. 


Consider speaking with a healthcare professional before you start taking BSO if you are on any other medication, vitamins and supplements or have any medical conditions. 


References


Aftab A. et al; A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb; Asian Pac J Trop Biomed; 2013 May; 3(5): Pages 337–352


Al-Noaemi M et al; Drug Repositioning For The Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Covid-19; Journal of Cardiology Research; 2020 Apr; V2 Issue1


Barakat, Ahmed B. et al; Antiviral activity and mode of action of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Lupinus termes L. Seed extracts against in vitro herpes simplex and hepatitis A viruses infection. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials. Vol. 2(3), Page 23-29. May 2010.


Barakat, Eman Mahmoud Fathy et al; Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt; World J Gastroenterol; 19(16): Page 2529–2536. 2013.


Duncan, Bruce et al; Chronic activation of the innate immune system may underlie the metabolic syndrome; Sao Paulo Med. J.; May 2001; vol.119 no.3


Koshak DAE, Koshak PEA. Nigella sativa L as a potential phytotherapy for coronavirus disease 2019: A mini review of in silico studies. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2020. 


Mueller C, Macpherson AJ; Layers of mutualism with commensal bacteria protect us from intestinal inflammation; Gut; 2006 Feb; 55(2) Page 276-84.


Neamat D. et al; Evaluation of Antiviral and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Herbal Extracts; Journal of High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University; 2019. Article 5, Volume 49, Issue 1, Page 36-40.


Onifade, AA et al; Nigella Sativa Concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV patient; African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines; Vol. 10 No. 5; August 2013.


Rafati S et al; Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection; Med J Islam Repub Iran; 2014; Page 28: 42


Rahman M; Potential benefits of combination of Nigella sativa and Zn supplements to treat COVID-19; J Herb Med. 2020 Oct; Page 23

 

Sommer A et al; Thymoquinone: shield and sword against SARS-CoV-2; Precision Nanomedicine; May 2020


Tavakkoli, A et al; Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa ) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone; Journal of Pharmacopuncture. 2017 Sept; 20(3); Page 179–193.


Umar S et al; Protective and antiviral activities of Nigella sativa against avian influenza (H9N2) in turkeys; Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences; September 2016


Internet References


Canada.gov, 2021; https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/general-food-safety-tips/safe-internal-cooking-temperatures.html?wbdisable=true; Accessed 29th April, 2021.


Fitzgerald, 2021; https://www.drkarafitzgerald.com/2018/08/13/the-power-of-black-cumin-seed/; Accessed 29th April, 2021.


WHO, 2021; https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public; Accessed 29th April, 2021.